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CH.LXXVI        DISASTROUS CAMPAIGNS             411
The Two Campaigns against Russia.—The campaigns
which Persia now fought against Russia fall into two
distinct periods. The first, in which the Persian army
won some successes, ended with a defeat in 1812, and
peace was made in 1813, by an agreement known as the
treaty of Gulistan. There was then a lull for thirteen
years until, in 1826, the claim made by Russia to the
district of Gokcha brought on a new war. The Persians
found their enemy unprepared and gained some initial
successes, but ultimately the Russians penetrated into
Azerbaijan and captured Tabriz. This campaign, which
was utterly disastrous to Persia, ended with the treaty of
Turkomanchai, in 1828.
The Persian Army under Abbas Mirza.—The command
of the Persian army was vested in Abbas Mirza^ the heir-
apparent and Governor-General of Azerbaijan, who started
the drilling and organizing of Persian troops on European
lines. At first Russian instructors were engaged, and in
order to overcome the prejudices of his countrymen the
Prince donned a European uniform and went through
the daily drills himself. A few years kter the French
Military Mission already mentioned appeared on the
scene, and large bodies of troops were drilled into some-
thing like an army on the European model, so far as
parade movements were concerned. Upon the decline of
French influence, English instructors were substituted.
This attempt to drill the Persians on European lines,
praiseworthy as it was, contributed to the ruin of their
country. Her military strength has always lain in
mounted tribesmen, who by their mobility could create a
desert round a regular force, attack numerically inferior
bodies of mounted troops, and remain out of reach of
slowly moving infantry. It was such a force as this that
Nadir Shah led to Delhi after defeating the Turks by
brilliant charges, and nothing but this could hope to
baffle a European army. Rawlinson, who at a later
period was an instructor of Persian troops, wrote: " System
was entirely wanting, whether in regard to pay, clothing,
food, carriage, equipage, commissariat, promotion, or
command. . . . Truly then may it be said that in